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Thiazides Indications

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📱 Very important points - Human Reproduction

📱 Uterus also called womb.

📱 Longest unstripped muscles of the body are found in the walls of uterus. (During pregnancy)

📱 Clitoris is a homologous to the penis in the male.

📱 Bartholin Glands : It is homologous to Cowper's gland of male

📱 A functional mammary gland is characteristic of all female mammals.

📱 The milk produced during the initial few days of lactation is called colostrum which contains antibodies (IgA) absolutely essential to develop resistance for the new-born babies.

📱 Liberation of sperms from Sertoli cells of seminiferous tubules is called spermiation.

📱 Liberation of sperms from testes is called semination.

📱 Liberation of sperms from body of male is called ejaculation .

📱 Mammalian sperms are transfered to vagina of female by the process called insemination.

📱 In 1 ml of semen, 20 to 120 millions of sperms are present in human being.

📱 Leydig's cells mature at 10 yrs. of age.

📱 In humans (and most vertebrates), the first polar body does not undergo meiosis II.

📱 The first polar body is, therefore, formed merely to get rid of unwanted chromosomes.

📱 65-74 days are required to complete the cycle of spermatogenesis in human being.

✔️ Emergency Drugs

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🔵 Medication Administration Checklist

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😭 Serious Complications of Oral Birth Control Pills

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The “3 D’s” Cardiac Tamponade (Beck’s Triad)

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✔️ Cardiopulmonary Bypass Complications “4 H’s of CBP”

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🔻 Hypertension Complications “5 C’s of Hypertension Complications”

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Phases of Menstrual Cycle

(1) Menstrual Phase:
(i) In a 28 days menstrual cycle,the menses  takes place on cycle days 3-5.
(ii) The production of LH from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is reduced.
(iii) The withdrawal of  this hormone causes degeneration of the corpus luteum and, therefore progestrone production is reduced.
(iv) Production of oestrogen is also reduced in this phase.
(v) The endometrium of uterus breaks down & menstruation begins.
(vi) The cells of endometrium secretions, blood & unfertilised ovum constitutes the menstrual flow.

(2) Follicular Phase:
(i) This phase usually includes cycle days 6-13 or 14 in a 28 days cycle.
(ii) The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland stimulates the ovarian follicle to secrete oestrogens.
(iii) Oestrogen stimulates the proliferation of the endometrium of the uterine wall.
(iv) The endometrium becomes thicker by rapid cell multiplication and this is accompanied by an increase in uterine glands & blood vessels.

(3) Ovulatory Phase:
(i) Both LH & FSH attain a peak level in the middle of cycle (about 14th day).
(ii) Oestrogen concentration in blood increases.
(iii) Rapid secretion of LH induces rupturing of graffian follicle and thereby the release of ovum.
(iv) In fact LH causes ovulation.

(4) Luteal Phase:
(i) Includes cycle days 15 to 28.
(ii) Corpus luteum secretes progestrone.
(iii) Endometrium thickens.
(iv) Uterine glands become secretory.

Menstrual Cycle

(1) Menstruation occurs in human, apes and old world monkeys.
(2) Menstruation is bleeding from the uterus of adult females at intervals of one lunar month.
(3) Beginning of menstruation or first menstruation is called menarche.
(4) The beginning of menstruation varies. It usually occurs between 12 and 15 years.
(5) The cycle of events starting from one menstruation till the next one is called Menstrual Cycle.
(6) In human females, menstruation is repeated at an average interval of about 28/29 days.
(7) One ovum is released (ovulation) during the middle of each menstrual cycle.
(8) It is regulated by certain hormones, some of which are secreted by the pituitary gland.
(9) The pituitary gland is stimulated by releasing factors produced in the hypothalamus.
(10) The hormones produced by the pituitary gland influence the ovaries. The hormones secreted by the ovaries affect the walls of the uterus.

📱 Thyroid gland

(1) The name "thyroid" was introduced by Thomas Wharton (1656).

(2) It is derived from Greek "Thyreos" a shield.

(3) Location: This is the largest endocrine gland of our body. It is located in our neck upon the ventral aspect of larynx (sound box or Adam's apple) and a few anterior most tracheal rings. It is a dark brown and H-shaped bilobed gland.

(4) Hormones of thyroid:

Thyroid gland secretes two iodinated hormones.

(a) Thyroxine: It is an iodine containing (6% iodine) amine hormone which is derived from tyrosine amino acid. Chemically thyroxine is tetraidothyronine though also found as tri-iodothyronine. Secretion of thyroxine is inversely proportional to the blood level of thyroxine (feedback mechanism).

(b) Thyrocalcitonin (TCT): It is a long peptide hormone secreted by parafollicular by cells of thyroid gland (C-cells). It secretion is regulated by increased plasma level of calcium by feedback mechanism.

(5) Irregularities of thyroid gland

(a) Hypothyroidism: (Decreased section of thyroxine from thyroid gland).

(b) Hypersecretion of thyroid hormones (Hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis) : This may also be a genetic defect, but usually it is provided by chronic infections (influenza, rheumatism, tonsilitis, tuberculosis, measles, whooping cough, etc.) pregnancy, intake of large doses of iodine, over-eating, etc. It results into a considerable increase in glucose and oxygen consumption by cells and the rate of oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria.

📱 Hormones

body has different glands that secret Hormones (liquid substance), which are essential for the different body functions.
Adrenaline Hormone is secreted from the adrenal glands. It is secreted directly into the blood and then carried to different parts of the body.
On the other hand, plants have hormones that control and regulate their directional growth.
Iodine is essential for the thyroid gland that makes thyroxin hormone.
Further, Iodine is an essential element for the synthesis of thyroxin.
Deficiency of Iodine, that might cause goiter.
The term “goiter” refers to the abnormal expansion of the thyroid gland (resulting into swollen neck).
Thyroxin Hormone regulates carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the body and provide the best balance for body growth.
Growth hormone, which is secreted by the pituitary gland, regulates growth and development of the body.
The deficiency of growth hormone in childhood causes dwarfism short height.
During the age of 10-12, there are certain physical change in the bodies of children, which is caused by the secretion of testosterone in boys and oestrogen in girls.
As shown in the image given above, it is significant difference between male and female body i.e. males have testis (secretes Testosterone Hormone) and females have ovary (secretes Oestrogen Hormone).
Insulin is a hormone, which is produced by the pancreas and helps in regulating the sugar levels of blood.
If insulin is not secreted in proper amounts or on a proper time, the sugar level in the blood rises, which may cause different harmful effects in the body.

📱 Pain Assessment

👀 Eyes Abbreviation

🛡 Breast Assessment

📱 Seven Warning Signs of Cancer

📱 Alcoholism Screening

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