UPSC POLITY


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UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#unionanditsterritories

🔺️ MANIPUR, TR
IPURA and MEGHALAYA.

In 1972, the political map of Northeast India underwent a major
change.

◇ Thus, the two union territories of Manipur and Tripura and the sub-state of Meghalaya got statehood and the two union territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh (originally known as North-East Frontier Agency–NEFA) came into being.

◇ With this, the number of states of the Indian Union increased to 21 (Manipur 19th, Tripura 20th and Meghalaya 21st).

◇ Initially, the 22nd Constitutional Amendment Act (1969) created Meghalaya as an ‘autonomous state’ or ‘sub-state’ within the state of Assam with its own legislature and council of ministers.

◇ However, this did not satisfy the aspirations of the people of Meghalaya.

◇ The union territories of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh were also formed out of the territori
es of Assam.

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UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#unionanditsterritories

🔺️ HARYANA, CHANDIGARH and HIMACHAL PRADESH.

◇ In 1966, the State of Punjab was bifu
rcated to create Haryana, the 17th state of the Indian Union, and the union territory of Chandigarh.

◇ This followed the demand for a separate ‘Sikh Homeland’ (Punjabi Subha) raised by the Akali Dal under the leadership of Master Tara Singh.

◇ On the recommendation of the Shah Commission (1966) :-

• the Punjabi-speaking areas were constituted into the unilingual state of Punjab,

• the Hindi-speaking areas were constituted into the State of Haryana and

• the hill areas were merged with the adjoining union territory of Himachal Pradesh.

◇ In 1971, the union territory of Himachal Pradesh was elevated12 to the status of a state (18th state of the Indian Union).

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UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956

#unionanditsterritories

🔺️ NAGALAND

◇ In 1
963, the State of Nagaland was formed by taking the Naga Hills and Tuensang area out of the state of Assam.

◇ This was done to satisfy the movement of the hostile Nagas.

◇ However, before giving Nagaland the status of the 16th state of the Indian Union, it was placed under the control of governor of Assam in 1961.

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UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#Unionanditsterritories

GOA, DAMAN and DIU

India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of a police action in 1961.

◇ They were constituted as a union territory by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962.

◇ Later, in 1987, Goa was conferred a statehood.9 Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory.


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UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#Unionanditsterritories

GOA, DAMAN and DIU

India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of a police action in 1961.

◇ They were constituted as a union territory by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962.

◇ Later, in 1987, Goa was conferred a statehood.9 Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory.


▪︎@upsc_polity_notes


UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#Unionanditsterritories

GOA, DAMAN and DIU

India acquired these three territories from the Portuguese by means of a police action in 1961.

◇ They were constituted as a union territory by the 12th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1962.

◇ Later, in 1987, Goa was conferred a statehood.9 Consequently, Daman and Diu was made a separate union territory.


▪︎@upsc_polity_notes


UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#unionanditsterritories

DADRA and NAGA
R HAVELI.

◇ The Portu
guese ruled this territory until its liberation in 1954.

◇ Subsequently, the administration was carried on till 1961 by an administrator chosen by the people themselves. It was converted into a union territory of India by the 10th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1961.

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y_notes


UNION AND TERRITORIES CREATED AFTER 1956.

#unionanditsterritories

1. MAHARASHTRA a
nd GUJARAT

◇ In 1960,
the bilingual state of Bombay was divided into two separate states–Maharashtra for Marathi speaking people and Gujarat for Gujarati speaking people.

Gujarat was established as the 15th state of the Indian Union.

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FAZL ALI COMMISSION

#Unionanditsterritories

◇ The creation of Andhra state intensified the demand from other regions for creation of states on linguistic basis.

◇ This forced the Government of India to appoint (in December, 1953) a three- member States Reorganisation Commission under the chairmanship of Fazl Ali to re-examine the whole question.

◇ Its other two members were K.M. Panikkar and H.N. Kunzru. It submitted its report in September 1955 and broadly accepted language as the basis of reorganisation of states. But, it rejected the theory of ‘one language-one state’.

◇ Its view was that the unity of India should be regarded as the primary consideration in any redrawing of the country’s political units.

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J.V.P COMMITTEE.

#Unionanditsterritories

Dhar commission report created much resentment and led to the appointment of another Linguistic Provinces Committee by the Congress in December 1948, itself to examine the whole question afresh.

◇ It consisted of Jawaharlal Nehru, Vallahbhai Patel and Pattabhi Sitaramayya and hence, was popularly known as JVP Committee.

◇ It submitted its report in April 1949, and formally rejected language as the basis for reorganisation of states.

◇ However, in October 1953, the Government of India was forced to create the first linguistic state, known as Andhra state, by separating the Telugu speaking areas from the Madras state.

◇ This followed a prolonged popular agitation and the death of Potti Sriramulu, a Congress person of standing, after a 56-day hunger strike for the cause.

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DHAR COMMISSION

#Unionanditsterritories

◇ There has been a demand from different regions, particularly South India, for reorganisation of states on linguistic basis.

◇ Accordingly, in June 1948, the Government of India appointed the Linguistic Provinces Commission under the chairmanship of S.K. Dhar to examine the feasibility of this.

◇ The commission submitted its report in December, 1948, and recommended the reorganisation of states on the basis of administrative convenience rather than linguistic factor.

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INTEGRATION OF PRINCELY STATE.

#Unionanditsterritories

◇ At
the time of independence, India comprised two categories of political units, namely, the British provinces (under the direct rule of British government) and the princely states (under the rule of native princes but subject to the paramountcy of the British Crown).

◇ The Indian Independence Act (1947) created two independent and separate dominions of India and Pakistan and gave three options to the princely states which are :-

joining India, joining Pakistan or remaining independent.

◇ Of the 552 princely states situated within the geographical boundaries of India, 549 joined India and the remaining 3 (Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir) refused to join India.

◇ However, in course of time, they were also integrated with India–Hyderabad by means of police action, Junagarh by means of referendum and Kashmir by the Instrument of Accession.

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